Friendica Communications Platform (please note that this is a clone of the repository at github, issues are handled there) https://friendi.ca
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  1. # Friendica Installation
  2. We've tried very hard to ensure that Friendica will run on commodity hosting platforms - such as those used to host Wordpress blogs and Drupal websites.
  3. We offer a manual and an automatic installation.
  4. But be aware that Friendica is more than a simple web application.
  5. It is a complex communications system which more closely resembles an email server than a web server.
  6. For reliability and performance, messages are delivered in the background and are queued for later delivery when sites are down.
  7. This kind of functionality requires a bit more of the host system than the typical blog.
  8. Not every PHP/MySQL hosting provider will be able to support Friendica.
  9. Many will.
  10. But **please** review the [requirements](#1_2_1) and confirm these with your hosting provider prior to installation.
  11. ## Support
  12. If you encounter installation issues, please let us know via the [helper](http://forum.friendi.ca/profile/helpers) or the [developer](https://forum.friendi.ca/profile/developers) forum or [file an issue](https://github.com/friendica/friendica/issues).
  13. Please be as clear as you can about your operating environment and provide as much detail as possible about any error messages you may see, so that we can prevent it from happening in the future.
  14. Due to the large variety of operating systems and PHP platforms in existence we may have only limited ability to debug your PHP installation or acquire any missing modules - but we will do our best to solve any general code issues.
  15. If you do not have a Friendica account yet, you can register a temporary one at [tryfriendica.de](https://tryfriendica.de) and join the forums mentioned above from there.
  16. The account will expire after 7 days, but you can ask the server admin to keep your account longer, should the problem not be resolved after that.
  17. ## Prerequisites
  18. * Choose a domain name or subdomain name for your server. Put some thought into this. While changing it after installation is supported, things still might break.
  19. * Setup HTTPS on your domain.
  20. ### Requirements
  21. * Apache with mod-rewrite enabled and "Options All" so you can use a local .htaccess file
  22. * PHP 7+ (PHP 7.1+ is recommended for performance and official support)
  23. * PHP *command line* access with register_argc_argv set to true in the php.ini file
  24. * Curl, GD, PDO, MySQLi, hash, xml, zip and OpenSSL extensions
  25. * The POSIX module of PHP needs to be activated (e.g. [RHEL, CentOS](http://www.bigsoft.co.uk/blog/index.php/2014/12/08/posix-php-commands-not-working-under-centos-7) have disabled it)
  26. * some form of email server or email gateway such that PHP mail() works
  27. * MySQL 5.6+ or an equivalent alternative for MySQL (MariaDB, Percona Server etc.)
  28. * ability to schedule jobs with cron (Linux/Mac) or Scheduled Tasks (Windows)
  29. * installation into a top-level domain or sub-domain (without a directory/path component in the URL) is RECOMMENDED. Directory paths will not be as convenient to use and have not been thoroughly tested. This is REQUIRED if you wish to communicate with the Diaspora network.
  30. **If your hosting provider doesn't allow Unix shell access, you might have trouble getting everything to work.**
  31. For alternative server configurations (such as Nginx server and MariaDB database engine), refer to the [Friendica wiki](https://github.com/friendica/friendica/wiki).
  32. ### Optional
  33. * PHP ImageMagick extension (php-imagick) for animated GIF support.
  34. * [Composer](https://getcomposer.org/) for a git install
  35. ## Installation procedure
  36. ### Alternative Installation Methods
  37. This guide will walk you through the manual installation process of Friendica.
  38. If this is nothing for you, you might be interested in
  39. * the [Friendica Docker image](https://github.com/friendica/docker) or
  40. * how to [install Friendica with YunoHost](https://github.com/YunoHost-Apps/friendica_ynh).
  41. ### Get Friendica
  42. Unpack the Friendica files into the root of your web server document area.
  43. If you copy the directory tree to your webserver, make sure that you also copy
  44. `.htaccess-dist` - as "dot" files are often hidden and aren't normally copied.
  45. **OR**
  46. Clone the [friendica/friendica GitHub repository](https://github.com/friendica/friendica) and import dependencies.
  47. This makes the software much easier to update.
  48. The Linux commands to clone the repository into a directory "mywebsite" would be
  49. git clone https://github.com/friendica/friendica.git -b master mywebsite
  50. cd mywebsite
  51. bin/composer.phar install --no-dev
  52. Make sure the folder *view/smarty3* exists and is writable by the webserver user, in this case *www-data*
  53. mkdir view/smarty3
  54. chown www-data:www-data view/smarty3
  55. chmod 775 view/smarty3
  56. Get the addons by going into your website folder.
  57. cd mywebsite
  58. Clone the addon repository (separately):
  59. git clone https://github.com/friendica/friendica-addons.git -b master addon
  60. If you want to use the development version of Friendica you can switch to the develop branch in the repository by running
  61. git checkout develop
  62. bin/composer.phar install
  63. cd addon
  64. git checkout develop
  65. **Be aware that the develop branch is unstable and may break your Friendica node at any time.**
  66. You should have a recent backup before updating.
  67. If you encounter a bug, please let us know.
  68. ### Create a database
  69. Create an empty database and note the access details (hostname, username, password, database name).
  70. Friendica needs the permission to create and delete fields and tables in its own database.
  71. Please check the [troubleshooting](#1_6) section if running on MySQL 5.7.17 or newer.
  72. ### Option A: Run the installer
  73. Point your web browser to the new site and follow the instructions.
  74. Please note any error messages and correct these before continuing.
  75. If you need to specify a port for the connection to the database, you can do so in the host name setting for the database.
  76. *If* the manual installation fails for any reason, check the following:
  77. * Does `config/local.config.php` exist? If not, edit `config/local-sample.config.php` and change the system settings.
  78. * Rename to `config/local.config.php`.
  79. * Is the database populated? If not, import the contents of `database.sql` with phpmyadmin or the mysql command line.
  80. At this point visit your website again, and register your personal account.
  81. Registration errors should all be recoverable automatically.
  82. If you get any *critical* failure at this point, it generally indicates the database was not installed correctly.
  83. You might wish to move/rename `config/local.config.php` to another name and empty (called 'dropping') the database tables, so that you can start fresh.
  84. ### Option B: Run the automatic install script
  85. You have the following options to automatically install Friendica:
  86. - creating a prepared config file (f.e. `prepared.config.php`)
  87. - using environment variables (f.e. `MYSQL_HOST`)
  88. - using options (f.e. `--dbhost <host>`)
  89. You can combine environment variables and options, but be aware that options are prioritized over environment variables.
  90. For more information during the installation, you can use this command line option
  91. bin/console autoinstall -v
  92. If you wish to include all optional checks, use `-a` like this statement:
  93. bin/console autoinstall -a
  94. *If* the automatic installation fails for any reason, check the following:
  95. * Does `config/local.config.php` already exist? If yes, the automatic installation won't start
  96. * Are the options in the `config/local.config.php` correct? If not, edit them directly.
  97. * Is the empty MySQL-database created? If not, create it.
  98. #### B.1: Config file
  99. You can use a prepared config file like [local-sample.config.php](/config/local-sample.config.php).
  100. Navigate to the main Friendica directory and execute the following command:
  101. bin/console autoinstall -f <prepared.config.php>
  102. #### B.2: Environment variables
  103. There are two types of environment variables.
  104. - those you can use in normal mode too (Currently just **database credentials**)
  105. - those you can only use during installation (because Friendica will normally ignore it)
  106. You can use the options during installation too and skip some of the environment variables.
  107. **Database credentials**
  108. if you don't use the option `--savedb` during installation, the DB credentials will **not** be saved in the `config/local.config.php`.
  109. - `MYSQL_HOST` The host of the mysql/mariadb database
  110. - `MYSQL_PORT` The port of the mysql/mariadb database
  111. - `MYSQL_USERNAME` The username of the mysql database login (used for mysql)
  112. - `MYSQL_USER` The username of the mysql database login (used for mariadb)
  113. - `MYSQL_PASSWORD` The password of the mysql/mariadb database login
  114. - `MYSQL_DATABASE` The name of the mysql/mariadb database
  115. **Friendica settings**
  116. This variables wont be used at normal Friendica runtime.
  117. Instead, they get saved into `config/local.config.php`.
  118. - `FRIENDICA_URL_PATH` The URL path of Friendica (f.e. '/friendica')
  119. - `FRIENDICA_PHP_PATH` The path of the PHP binary
  120. - `FRIENDICA_ADMIN_MAIL` The admin email address of Friendica (this email will be used for admin access)
  121. - `FRIENDICA_TZ` The timezone of Friendica
  122. - `FRIENDICA_LANG` The language of Friendica
  123. Navigate to the main Friendica directory and execute the following command:
  124. bin/console autoinstall [--savedb]
  125. #### B.3: Execution options
  126. All options will be saved in the `config/local.config.php` and are overruling the associated environment variables.
  127. - `-H|--dbhost <host>` The host of the mysql/mariadb database (env `MYSQL_HOST`)
  128. - `-p|--dbport <port>` The port of the mysql/mariadb database (env `MYSQL_PORT`)
  129. - `-U|--dbuser <username>` The username of the mysql/mariadb database login (env `MYSQL_USER` or `MYSQL_USERNAME`)
  130. - `-P|--dbpass <password>` The password of the mysql/mariadb database login (env `MYSQL_PASSWORD`)
  131. - `-d|--dbdata <database>` The name of the mysql/mariadb database (env `MYSQL_DATABASE`)
  132. - `-u|--urlpath <url_path>` The URL path of Friendica - f.e. '/friendica' (env `FRIENDICA_URL_PATH`)
  133. - `-b|--phppath <php_path>` The path of the PHP binary (env `FRIENDICA_PHP_PATH`)
  134. - `-A|--admin <mail>` The admin email address of Friendica (env `FRIENDICA_ADMIN_MAIL`)
  135. - `-T|--tz <timezone>` The timezone of Friendica (env `FRIENDICA_TZ`)
  136. - `-L|--lang <language>` The language of Friendica (env `FRIENDICA_LANG`)
  137. Navigate to the main Friendica directory and execute the following command:
  138. bin/console autoinstall [options]
  139. ### Prepare .htaccess file
  140. Copy `.htaccess-dist` to `.htaccess` (be careful under Windows) to have working mod-rewrite again. If you have installed Friendica into a sub directory, like */friendica/* set this path in `RewriteBase` accordingly.
  141. Example:
  142. cp .htacces-dist .htaccess
  143. *Note*: Do **not** rename the `.htaccess-dist` file as it is tracked by GIT and renaming will cause a dirty working directory.
  144. ### Verify the "host-meta" page is working
  145. Friendica should respond automatically to important addresses under the */.well-known/* rewrite path.
  146. One critical URL would look like, for example: https://example.com/.well-known/host-meta
  147. It must be visible to the public and must respond with an XML file that is automatically customized to your site.
  148. If that URL is not working, it is possible that some other software is using the /.well-known/ path.
  149. Other symptoms may include an error message in the Admin settings that says "host-meta is not reachable on your system.
  150. This is a severe configuration issue that prevents server to server communication."
  151. Another common error related to host-meta is the "Invalid profile URL."
  152. Check for a `.well-known` directory that did not come with Friendica.
  153. The preferred configuration is to remove the directory, however this is not always possible.
  154. If there is any /.well-known/.htaccess file, it could interfere with this Friendica core requirement.
  155. You should remove any RewriteRules from that file, or remove that whole file if appropriate.
  156. It may be necessary to chmod the /.well-known/.htaccess file if you were not given write permissions by default.
  157. ## Register the admin account
  158. At this point visit your website again, and register your personal account with the same email as in the `config.admin_email` config value.
  159. Registration errors should all be recoverable automatically.
  160. If you get any *critical* failure at this point, it generally indicates the database was not installed correctly.
  161. You might wish to delete/rename `config/local.config.php` to another name and drop all the database tables so that you can start fresh.
  162. ## Post Install Configuration
  163. ### (REQUIRED) Background tasks
  164. Set up a cron job or scheduled task to run the worker once every 5-10 minutes in order to perform background processing.
  165. Example:
  166. cd /base/directory; /path/to/php bin/worker.php
  167. Change "/base/directory", and "/path/to/php" as appropriate for your situation.
  168. #### cron job for worker
  169. If you are using a Linux server, run "crontab -e" and add a line like the
  170. one shown, substituting for your unique paths and settings:
  171. */10 * * * * cd /home/myname/mywebsite; /usr/bin/php bin/worker.php
  172. You can generally find the location of PHP by executing "which php".
  173. If you run into trouble with this section please contact your hosting provider for assistance.
  174. Friendica will not work correctly if you cannot perform this step.
  175. If it is not possible to set up a cron job then please activate the "frontend worker" in the administration interface.
  176. Once you have installed Friendica and created an admin account as part of the process, you can access the admin panel of your installation and do most of the server wide configuration from there.
  177. #### worker alternative: daemon
  178. Otherwise, you’ll need to use the command line on your remote server and start the Friendica daemon (background task) using the following command:
  179. cd /path/to/friendica; php bin/daemon.php start
  180. Once started, you can check the daemon status using the following command:
  181. cd /path/to/friendica; php bin/daemon.php status
  182. After a server restart or any other failure, the daemon needs to be restarted.
  183. This could be achieved by a cronjob.
  184. ### (RECOMMENDED) Logging & Log Rotation
  185. At this point it is recommended that you set up logging and logrotation.
  186. To do so please visit [Settings](help/Settings) and search the 'Logs' section for more information.
  187. ### (RECOMMENDED) Set up a backup plan
  188. Bad things will happen.
  189. Let there be a hardware failure, a corrupted database or whatever you can think of.
  190. So once the installation of your Friendica node is done, you should make yourself a backup plan.
  191. The most important file is the `config/local.config.php` file.
  192. As it stores all your data, you should also have a recent dump of your Friendica database at hand, should you have to recover your node.
  193. ### (OPTIONAL) Reverse-proxying and HTTPS
  194. Friendica looks for some well-known HTTP headers indicating a reverse-proxy
  195. terminating an HTTPS connection.
  196. While the standard from RFC 7239 specifies the use of the `Forwarded` header.
  197. Forwarded: for=192.0.2.1; proto=https; by=192.0.2.2
  198. Friendica also supports a number on non-standard headers in common use.
  199. X-Forwarded-Proto: https
  200. Front-End-Https: on
  201. X-Forwarded-Ssl: on
  202. It is however preferable to use the standard approach if configuring a new server.
  203. ## Troubleshooting
  204. ### "System is currently unavailable. Please try again later"
  205. Check your database settings.
  206. It usually means your database could not be opened or accessed.
  207. If the database resides on the same machine, check that the database server name is "localhost".
  208. ### 500 Internal Error
  209. This could be the result of one of our Apache directives not being supported by your version of Apache. Examine your apache server logs.
  210. You might remove the line "Options -Indexes" from the .htaccess file if you are using a Windows server as this has been known to cause problems.
  211. Also check your file permissions. Your website and all contents must generally be world-readable.
  212. It is likely that your web server reported the source of the problem in its error log files.
  213. Please review these system error logs to determine what caused the problem.
  214. Often this will need to be resolved with your hosting provider or (if self-hosted) your web server configuration.
  215. ### 400 and 4xx "File not found" errors
  216. First check your file permissions.
  217. Your website and all contents must generally be world-readable.
  218. Ensure that mod-rewite is installed and working, and that your `.htaccess` file
  219. is being used. To verify the latter, create a file `test.out` containing the
  220. word "test" in the top directory of Friendica, make it world readable and point
  221. your web browser to
  222. http://yoursitenamehere.com/test.out
  223. This file should be blocked. You should get a permission denied message.
  224. If you see the word "test" your Apache configuration is not allowing your
  225. `.htaccess` file to be used (there are rules in this file to block access to any
  226. file with .out at the end, as these are typically used for system logs).
  227. Make certain the `.htaccess` file exists and is readable by everybody, then look
  228. for the existence of "AllowOverride None" in the Apache server configuration for your site.
  229. This will need to be changed to "AllowOverride All".
  230. If you do not see the word "test", your `.htaccess` is working, but it is likely
  231. that mod-rewrite is not installed in your web server or is not working.
  232. On most Linux flavors:
  233. % a2enmod rewrite
  234. % /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  235. Consult your hosting provider, experts on your particular Linux distribution or
  236. (if Windows) the provider of your Apache server software if you need to change
  237. either of these and can not figure out how. There is a lot of help available on
  238. the web. Search "mod-rewrite" along with the name of your operating system
  239. distribution or Apache package (if using Windows).
  240. ### Unable to write the file config/local.config.php due to permissions issues
  241. Create an empty `config/local.config.php`file and apply world-write permission.
  242. On Linux:
  243. % touch config/local.config.php
  244. % chmod 664 config/local.config.php
  245. Retry the installation. As soon as the database has been created,
  246. ******* this is important *********
  247. % chmod 644 config/local.config.php
  248. ### Suhosin issues
  249. Some configurations with "suhosin" security are configured without an ability to
  250. run external processes. Friendica requires this ability. Following are some notes
  251. provided by one of our members.
  252. > On my server I use the php protection system Suhosin [http://www.hardened-php.net/suhosin/].
  253. > One of the things it does is to block certain functions like proc_open, as
  254. > configured in `/etc/php5/conf.d/suhosin.ini`:
  255. >
  256. > suhosin.executor.func.blacklist = proc_open, ...
  257. >
  258. > For those sites like Friendica that really need these functions they can be
  259. > enabled, e.g. in `/etc/apache2/sites-available/friendica`:
  260. >
  261. > <Directory /var/www/friendica/>
  262. > php_admin_value suhosin.executor.func.blacklist none
  263. > php_admin_value suhosin.executor.eval.blacklist none
  264. > </Directory>
  265. >
  266. > This enables every function for Friendica if accessed via browser, but not for
  267. > the cronjob that is called via php command line. I attempted to enable it for
  268. > cron by using something like:
  269. >
  270. > */10 * * * * cd /var/www/friendica/friendica/ && sudo -u www-data /usr/bin/php \
  271. > -d suhosin.executor.func.blacklist=none \
  272. > -d suhosin.executor.eval.blacklist=none -f bin/worker.php
  273. >
  274. > This worked well for simple test cases, but the friendica-cron still failed
  275. > with a fatal error:
  276. >
  277. > suhosin[22962]: ALERT - function within blacklist called: proc_open()
  278. > (attacker 'REMOTE_ADDR not set', file '/var/www/friendica/friendica/boot.php',
  279. > line 1341)
  280. >
  281. > After a while I noticed, that `bin/worker.php` calls further PHP script via `proc_open`.
  282. > These scripts themselves also use `proc_open` and fail, because they are NOT
  283. > called with `-d suhosin.executor.func.blacklist=none`.
  284. >
  285. > So the simple solution is to put the correct parameters into `config/local.config.php`:
  286. >
  287. > 'config' => [
  288. > //Location of PHP command line processor
  289. > 'php_path' => '/usr/bin/php -d suhosin.executor.func.blacklist=none \
  290. > -d suhosin.executor.eval.blacklist=none',
  291. > ],
  292. >
  293. > This is obvious as soon as you notice that the friendica-cron uses `proc_open`
  294. > to execute PHP scripts that also use `proc_open`, but it took me quite some time to find that out.
  295. > I hope this saves some time for other people using suhosin with function blacklists.
  296. ### Unable to create all mysql tables on MySQL 5.7.17 or newer
  297. If the setup fails to create all the database tables and/or manual creation from
  298. the command line fails, with this error:
  299. ERROR 1067 (42000) at line XX: Invalid default value for 'created'
  300. You need to adjust your my.cnf and add the following setting under the [mysqld]
  301. section:
  302. sql_mode = '';
  303. After that, restart mysql and try again.